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četvrtak, 22. prosinca 2011.

• Nature's Miracle - Ginkgo biloba, Book 1 (Vol 1-2)

Ginkgo biloba L. 1771

Ginkgo biloba L. 1771
• All about Ginkgo (or Maidenhair tree)

Volume 1-2

Foreword (Vol 1-2) by
Peter Crane (UK-USA), Peter Del Tredici (USA), Pavel Hrubík (Slovakia), Elvira Koić  (Croatia), Rade Rakić (Croatia), Katarína Ražná (Slovakia),
Zhi-Yan Zhou (China)

The Project “Ginkgo biloba L. 1771 • All about Ginkgo (or Maidenhair tree)” is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re−use it under the terms of the License included with this.

Title: Ginkgo biloba L. 1771

Author: B. M. Begović Bego

Manuscript Release Date: December 2010/October 2011

The original language manuscript: Croatian

English translation: Blanka Capić (Croatia)

Language: English

Graphic Design: B. M. B. Begović


“With apologies to the movie maker Woody Allen, Branko Begovic Bego's four volume book could easily
have been called “Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Ginkgo biloba, But Were Afraid To Ask.” The
author has not only scoured the deepest recesses of botanical libraries for obscure historical facts about the
Ginkgo tree, but also the far reaches of the internet galaxy for the latest information about its worldwide
distribution and medicinal uses. The result is the beautiful book you now hold in your hands (to say nothing of
the three more volumes that are promised follow). The book is breathtaking in its scope, covering in great detail
the topics of its discovery and naming by eighteenth century European travelers to Asia, its unbelievably long
evolutionary history as documented in fossil deposits throughout the world, its ecology and current distribution
as a wild plant in China, the anatomy and morphology of its stems, roots, leaves and reproductive cones, and
finally the techniques of its propagation and cultivation from seed, grafting and cuttings. And all of this
information is beautifully illustrated with photographs of ancient and young specimens growing throughout the
world. In a true labor of love, Begovic Bego has produced the definitive encyclopedia of Ginkgo biloba.”
Prof. Peter Del Tredici, Dr. Sc. (Senior Research Scientist Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, Boston -
Lecturer, Harvard Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, USA) - (2011/03/01)

“It is a curious fact that most of the plants with which we share our world are the product of a dramatic
evolutionary diversification that began around 135 million years ago: an explosion of diversity that has resulted
in about 350,000 living species. However, we know from paleontology that this hyper-diverse group—the
angiosperms or flowering plants—is just one among many lineages of seed plants, and that seed plants that
goes much further back in geologic time. So to fully understand the angiosperms we must place them in a
broader context of 450 million years of plant life on land, and to do that we must turn to the fossil record and
also those four groups of living plants that enable us to understand how other kinds of seed plants live and
This is the true significance of Ginkgo. The single living species stands distinct; not only from
angiosperms but also from conifers, cycads and Gnetales. It has a fossil history stretching back at least 200
million years and its fossil record shows that it was once part of a diverse and important group of plants that
declined as flowering plants diversified. Plants very similar to living Ginkgo biloba were one of the survivors of
the massive vegetational transformation of 100 million years ago and have come down to us almost unchanged
ever since. They survived the massive extinction at the end of the Cretaceous, and the changing climates of the
past 65 million years. More recently, though, Ginkgo was assailed again by grinding cold, spreading from the
north. The last great ice ages extinguished Ginkgo from most of the Northern Hemisphere.
Fortunately, however, Ginkgo managed to survive in southern and southwestern China. From those few
safe havens with the help of people, over many centuries, Ginkgo has spread around the world again. It has
returned once more to many of the places where it lived millions of years ago. The association of Ginkgo with
people is a story of revival and resurgence, and a testament to the power of survival of a singular tree. This
book is a celebration of the extraordinary life story of Ginkgo: one of the most remarkable, and most beautiful,
of all the world's plants.”
Sir Peter Crane, FRS Dean, (Yale School of Forestry & Evironmental Studies, USA) - (2011/02/28)

“The stimulation for further evaluation and research of rare plant species Ginkgo biloba L. and its
cultural expansion in Slovakia and Europe, was the book of Branko M. Begovic: “Nature's miracle – Ginkgo
L. 1771 – All about Ginkgo (or Maidenhair tree)” (Vol 1-4). The monograph on the extent of more than
620 pages (Vol 1-2 has 400 pages) with over 1300 color illustrations, luxury edition, brings many interesting
and valuable technical and scientific knowledge about the oldest tree species in the world - Ginkgo biloba L.,
originated in China.
The content of the book covers all the knowledge of the naming/terminology and Ginkgo classification,
history of cultivation as fruit woody plants (fruit tree) morphology and evolution of Ginkgo's plants, detailed
description, geographical distribution (area), cultivars, and varieties of trees, chemical composition and content
of other substances, usable in pharmacology, medicine and Ginkgo in nutrition, planting and propagation of
Ginkgo, mythology - religion - art.
Extremely valuable source of information for scientific and general public is the chapters References -
links. About the Ginkgo biloba L. have been written many works (books, articles) and websites. All works are
available in this book in chronological order, and above are available for further research and evaluation of
Ginkgo in Europe and worldwide.
Our friend and colleague Branko Begovic is a rare man, the creator (author) of numerous books and
publications and about ornamental plants, especially about the introduced plants, which have important
application in the stands in Slovakia, but especially in historic parks, gardens, but mainly in urbanized areas and
urban communities, where it better tolerate changed climate and soil conditions.
Congratulations and thanks to the author of the monograph “Nature's miracle – Ginkgo biloba L. 1771 –
All about Ginkgo (or Maidenhair tree)” (Vol 1-4)" Branko M. Begovic Bego, for the unique work to this extent,
the complexity of content, scientific and educational level have been in Europe (certainly in the world) and now
the author successfully engage the challenge, and with his associates issues such valuable work in the English
The monograph of Branko M. Begovic: “Nature's miracle – Ginkgo biloba L. 1771 – All about ginkgo (or
maidenhair tree)” (Vol 1-4), is a comprehensive scientific work, of particular importance for the history of
introduction and the possibility of deeper knowledge of plants (tree), which already existed before the world 200
million years, while maintaining the natural conditions only in the territory of China. Gradually it has been
introduced nearly worldwide. Thanks to the author of monographs and friends of Ginkgo has been the extension
of this tree in detail and evaluated in Croatia. An example of a small European country can by the size of the
effort and the efforts of knowledge to enrich the world's knowledge.”
Prof. Ing. Pavel Hrubík, Dr.Sc. (Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Slovakia) - (2010/09/15 & 2011/02/25)

“By reading this book we become aware of how much Ginkgo means to the author and how much
it will mean to all readers, or better yet - users manual. This is the result of fruitful cooperation between
applied science and practical work by author and represents a personal and professional response to a
specific narrow topic.
It is not easy to transfer their knowledge to others and there are even fewer practitioners who fail
to apply science in real life, help others and improve the world. Branko Begovic went just that way- in the direction of the applied sciences, and the lyrics have a special personal quality. Text is pronounced in an
understandable and simple way, understandable and applicable, different from the usual strict advice of
experts. Content that he offers is a credible, because of the expression and personal experience and gives
us the courage to try to apply yourself and showing a knowledge or skill. It also inspires us that we also
try to provide some answers in accordance with their experiences and so contribute to the common
wealth shared. Practice is a starting point, although the theoretical starting points are always offered in
the company. Therefore important literature and links which are studied during the preparation of this
edition are listed and are also important.
She (the classic form or digital form) is for everyone, curious, students, professionals and
patients. It was written with the intention to present the Ginkgo biloba and its path of history and the
creation of seeds to the drug. In this process many are included and in the mosaic, and a kind of hierarch
author connects them.
This is one of the first and unique manual of its kind in the world, and especially this part of
Europe. From it we learn about the Ginkgo, about his beauty and impact on human health. Following this
guide, we can say that the beautiful ancient Ginkgo biloba in China has settled permanently in Europe and
the world.
It is primarily used for centuries in medicine to improve circulation and blood flow in the brain,
arms and legs, concentration and memory recovery, relief of disorders of cerebral circulation, the
appearance of dizziness, noises in the ears, headaches, insomnia, cramps and feeling of coldness in the
hands and legs…”
Elvira Koić, M.Sc. (General Hospital Virovitica, Head of psychiatry, Virovitica, etc., Croatia) - (2011/01/31)

“These beautiful books I have in the hands expressed authors love by growing types of Ginkgo biloba -
especially because this kind in the world has been little known.
The author of this edition with the clarity of text and a wealth of beautiful illustrations and charts give us
something that will help us to get closer and more familiar with Ginkgo, its cultivation and care in the nurseries,
crops and plantations. Ginkgo biloba is an attractive plant and all of us, ordinary lovers of plants we are lucky if
you breed a plant that is perhaps a little unusual, or beautiful flowers, unusual or strange-stemmed leaves.
Ginkgo is one such plant, especially as its beautiful foliage creates a magnificent atmosphere for eye and soul,
and with it still has medicinal properties.
People will say that the Ginkgo biloba herb is known from the beginning, if so, and so is, then one should ask,
and why it is written so little literature on the method of planting and cultivation in the world. Evidence for this
is the book you hold in your hands, written in language which everyone can understand and without excessive
theorizing the author has consistently carried out his idea and wrote the manual in the true sense,
understandable to anyone who has even a minimal knowledge of botany.
The author offers a book that will each producer (farmer), if he decides on the growing of Ginkgo biloba,
on a smaller scale, enable a step forward in gaining knowledge necessary for safe and quality production. For
ambitious growers this book provides guidance in the next steps toward mass production.
It can be said that it is a manual in the true sense of the word and is among the few such volumes.
And at the end of this short review, I must say that the purchase and planting of Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)
is expensive and very demanding job. Therefore, this book will be an excellent manual to provide guidance when
someone wants to grow Ginkgo, whether as a Horticultural plants or as a plant for medicinal purposes with this
strange, rare and specific plant.”
Rade Rakić, M.S. (Croatian Forests of Croatia, Head of botanical nursery, Krizevci, Croatia) - (2011/01/08)

“The reviewed book is a complex, comprehensive work devoted to rare tree Ginkgo biloba L. The
contents include all assessed properties, the text is written in high-quality technical terminology, which is also
documented high level of expertise of the author works. Part of the text is a unique picture documentation, clear
tables and charts, maps (almost all of the pictures are the work of the author).
Each main chapter contains the clear contents, list of available world literature, including the amount of
Internet resources. This part of the work, as well, documents the efforts of many talents of the author of the
book and is a valuable source of knowledge for other professionals who wish to pursue this issue. Particular
attention is devoted to the publication and versatile medical properties and effects of extracts from leaves and
seeds of Ginkgo biloba.
Book publication will be an excellent teaching aid for university students, researchers and practitioners
because it provides a lot of knowledge about the exceptional value of trees, the history of the discovery,
cultivation, propagation and use for health man. For us, in Slovakia is also a stimulus for further research and
evaluation cultural extension of Ginkgo biloba L. in Slovakia. Congratulations and thank you author to release
this unique book works.”
Assoc. Prof. Ing. Katarína Ražná, Ph.D. (Department of genetics and plant breeding, Faculty of agriculture and
food resources, Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Slovakia) - (2011/02/25)

“Ginkgo is both a gift of the world to China, and a gift of China to the world.”
Peter Crane: “Ginkgo: The Silver Apricot - A Life through Time”

I have a predestined relationship with the living fossil Ginkgo. Not only are we both native to China, but
also I have devoted a considerable part of my academic career to the study of the geological history of this
esteemed tree. I used to take it reasonably that Ginkgo belongs to China, because there are the oldest reliable
fossil record dating back to about 170 Ma ago and also the 'missing link' in the evolution course of Ginkgo from
their ancestors, needless to say the existence of natural populations and numerous old trees of thousand years
old. When entering more deeply into the Ginkgo research, I became more and more aware of my narrower
world view. There have been so many people from different countries and areas where even cultivated Ginkgo
trees are rare, interested in and fond of Ginkgo, because it is so important and indispensible to people all over
the world. It has been widely planted and cultivated for scientific studies, garden decorating and city greening,
as well as medicine and daily life usages, and deeply integrated into human ethic, history, religions, culture, art
and literature. To meet the increasing needs of people for multiple purposes, Mr. B. M. Begovic Bego of Croatia
spent many years to compile the four-volume comprehensive manual about all aspects of Ginkgo with great
enthusiasm, which is extraordinary rich in data and references, including numerous relevant web sites. It will
certainly be of great help to people who wanted to know more about Ginkgo and to learn it from different sides,
especially in this part of the world. It will also be very useful to cultivation and propagation of ginkgo trees for
medicinal and other purposes.
Ginkgo which flourished widely on the earth in the geological ages and was once on the verge of
extinction has been now rejuvenated, and it will bring benefit to people all over the world.
Ginkgo should belong to the whole mankind.” 
Zhiyan Zhou, Research Professor Member of CAS - Academician, (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China)
- (2011/02/25)


Ginkgo in general
- Lets get to know
 Ginkgo (Vol 1)

• Foreword (Preface) - page 11

• Introduction - 15

Ginkgo biloba L. 1771

1. Nomenclature, taxonomic units and classifications, World names, names of origin, etc. - 16
    • Foreword

1.1. Discussion on the origin of the name Ginkgo (as plants, fruits and leaves)   
1.2. Recognized and not recognized nomenclature in the past and present
1.3. Dedicated and improper and the official taxonomic classification of the species and genus Ginkgo
1.4. The use of species names Ginkgo biloba in a variety of world languages
    • Valorization
    • Notes
    • References

2. Ancestors and relatives of Ginkgo biloba - 47
    • Foreword

2.1. History of paleobotanics research Ginkgo biloba
2.2. About finding fossils species Ginkgo biloba, his ancestors and relatives
2.3. The earliest ancestors Ginkgo biloba
2.4. Plants division Ginkgophyta
2.5. Trichopitys heteromorpha
2.6. Genus Ginkgo
2.7. Ginkgo yimaensis
2.8. Ginkgo apodes
2.9. Ginkgo adiantoidesGinkgo biloba
2.10. Discussion on an isolated existence Ginkgo biloba on DNA analysis - opportunities (non) preservation some species of the genus Ginkgo
2.11. Overview of the morphological characteristics of extinct species gender Ginkgo
2.12. Features of geological periods in which they lived Ginkgoales plants
2.13. The influence of climate and other elements on population gender Ginkgo and Ginkgoales plants in the past
2.14. Preservation of fossils the Ginkgo biloba ancestors
2.15. Something about the names of extinct species of the genus Ginkgo

    • Valorization
    • Notes
    • References

3. Morphological characteristics of species Ginkgo biloba - 81
    • Foreword

3.1. Description of typical tree species - in general
3.2. The leaves
3.3. Wood, bark and root system
3.4. Leaf
3.5. Flowers: male and female
3.6. The fruit and seeds
3.7. Chemical, microbiological and other characteristics Ginkgo leaf, bark and seeds etc.
3.8. Recognition of sex plants
3.9. Ginkgo as a technical value - in general

    • Valorization
    • Notes
    • References

4. Cultivation and propagation of the plant Ginkgo biloba - 143

    • Foreword
4.1. The process of fertilization - ovulation and fertilization
4.2. Germination and development of young plants
4.3. Transplanting young and other plants
4.4. Growing plants solitary Ginkgo
4.5. Ginkgo plantation cultivation of plants
4.6. Important factors for good growth of Ginkgo (water, sun, soil ...)
4.7. Propagation: vegetative and other
4.8. Diseases and pests

    • Valorization
    • Notes
    • References

5. Aerial & cadastre, etc. - 187

    • Foreword

6.1. Nature Reserve of Ginkgo biloba
6.2. Asia
6.3. Europe
6.4. North, Midlle and South America
6.5. Australia & other
6.6. The oldest Ginkgo tree in the World

    • Notes
• Plant and tree Hardiness Zones – World and parts

    • References

• Epiloque - 263

• Special Thanks - 391-395

bonsai forms (Vol 2)

• Foreword (Preface) -  page 11

• Introduction - 273

Ginkgo biloba L. 1771

1. Cultivars and varieties Ginkgo biloba - 275
    • Foreword

1.1. Cultivars and varieties
1.2. Table with descriptions, origins etc.
1.3. Gallery

    • Notes

2. Ginkgo biloba bonsai - 351
    • Foreword

2.1. Ginkgo bonsai
2.2. Gallery

    • References

• Epiloque - 383

• Special Thanks - 391-395

Edition Ginkgo biloba L. 1771 - All about Ginkgo (or Maidenhair tree) consists of four separate but related books.

Volume 1: “Ginkgo biloba L. 1771 - All about Ginkgo (or Maidenhair tree)” consists of a whole which is mainly about the descriptive part of the Ginkgo: morphological characteristics, name, planting and reproduction, prevalence etc. So, there are only descriptive characteristics.

Volume 2: “Ginkgo biloba L. 1771 - All about Ginkgo (or Maidenhair tree)” consists of two parts: cultivars and bonsai forms.

Volume 3: “Ginkgo biloba L. 1771 - All about Ginkgo (or Maidenhair tree)” consists of a whole which is mainly about the pharmacy and medicine (the traditional and the modern), cosmetics etc.

Volume 4: “Ginkgo biloba L. 1771 - All about Ginkgo (or Maidenhair tree)” consists of a whole which is mainly about the religion, art, mythology, etc.

Each book can be separate unit, but all together make a complete whole about Ginkgo.

The symbiosis of ancient history
and modern technology and
human life. Ginkgo biloba tree foliage,
in Washington Square Park - Greenwich Village,
New York, USA. Photo by Hubert Steed, 2006.

Briefly. Ginkgo. What is it?

Ginkgo (or Maidenhair tree) is one of the oldest species on this planet, growing almost unchanged 100 and more million years ago. These trees are grown as horticultural plants and on plantations for commercial use. The leaves have a specific form. The tree can live up to 4500, and often over 1000 years.
Ginkgo grows very slowly and the trees can be very large. Ginkgo trees can be extremly large but they grow very slow. There are male and female plants. Female plants bears fruit in Autumn, which is similar to plums. The fruit is in the middle of a hard seed such as nuts and it can be used as food.

The Ginkgo is a unique tree with no close living relatives. For centuries it has been believed that Ginkgo has extincted in the wild, but now it is known to grow wild in at least two small areas in eastern and southeastern China.

The Chinese people traditionally use leaves and fruit nuts, for food and medicine. And although the fruits and leaves of this plant has been used in China for nearly 4-5,000 years, its usage in Western medicine did not begin until the 1950s. Ginkgo is a medicinal plant. Modern science has confirmed this. Major of Ginkgo leafs is being used for tea, and for Ginkgo extract from which we can get variety of medications. Today, Ginkgo is grown on all continents.

General information

Scientific name: Ginkgo biloba L. 1771
Pronunciation: gink-go bye-lou-buh
Common name(s): Maidenhair Tree, Ginkgo, Ginko, Gingko etc.
Family: Ginkgoaceae
Clim. zones: 4/5 - 8/9 (optimal 6-9a)
Origin: China
Uses: Bonsai; wide tree lawns (>8 feet wide = >cca 2.5 m); medium-sized tree lawns (4-8 feet wide = 1.5-2.5 m); recommended for buffer strips
around parking lots or for median strip plantings in the highway; specimen; sidewalk cutout (tree pit); residential street tree; tree has been successfully
grown in urban areas where air pollution, poor drainage, compacted soil, and/or drought are common
Availability: generally available in many areas within its hardiness range


Height: 50 to 75 feet (15 to 25 m)
Spread: 50 to 60 feet (15 to 20 m)
Crown uniformity: irregular outline or silhouette
Crown shape: round; pyramidal
Crown density: open
Growth rate: slow
Texture: medium


Leaf arrangement: alternate
Leaf type: simple
Leaf margin: lobed
Leaf shape: fan-shaped
Leaf venation: parallel; palmate
Leaf type and persistence: deciduous
Leaf blade length: cca 2 to 4 inches (cca 5-12 cm)
Leaf color: green
Fall color: yellow
Fall characteristic: showy


Flower color: green
Flower characteristics: pleasant fragrance;
inconspicuous and not showy; spring flowering

Fruit & seed

Fruit shape: oval; round
Fruit length: cca 1 to 1.5 inches (cca 2-3 cm)
Fruit in 1 kg: cca 200
Fruit covering: fleshy
Fruit color: green; yellow
Fruit characteristics: does not attract wildlife; inconspicuous and not showy; fruit, twigs, or foliage cause significant litter
Seed lenght: >0.5 inches (>1.5 cm)
Seed in 1 kg: cca 600-1200 piec.

Trunk & Branches

Trunk/bark/branches: droop as the tree grows, and will require pruning for vehicular or pedestrian clearance beneath the canopy; showy trunk;
should be grown with a single leader; no thorns
Pruning requirement: needs little pruning to develop a strong structure
Breakage: resistant/not resistant
Current year twig color: brown; gray

• Nature's Miracle Ginkgo biloba Vol 1


    When I start growing Ginkgo I could not imagine that love towards that plant will become so big that I will devote a part of my life to Ginkgo exclusively. For a long time I've been collecting all informational I could find about Ginkgo, but 2007 I tried to make a simple, clear edition there was many different problems. About Ginkgo there were so much written articles but first group of them was connected to Gingko's fossils ancestors. Second group was about medical use of Ginkgo; numerous articles, studies, chemical formulas, charts by experts and amateurs, both chemists and pharmacists. Besides those two groups of articles all other notes were superficial  and shaped like news or advertisement  for numerous industrial products based on Ginkgo's leaf or seed. On the other hand I found some articles where some part were studied in smallest details. There were no more information available on line, too.

    And so I found myself in somehow tricky situation. How to present all about Ginkgo in the simplest but clear, interesting and still scientifically substantiated way? Have I succeeded – judge yourself.

    By 2009 I have managed to make one info-edition (non-commercial: for my friends) on Croatian in which it was explained in short  – what was Ginkgo. Besides I collected numerous notes and photos  about growing Ginkgo (from friends and my own). In the mean time I contacted famous botanists and other scientists whose interest was Ginkgo. Some of them were: professor Pavel Hrubík (Slovakia), Katarína Ražná (Slovakia), Zhiyan Zhou (China) and Peter Del Tredici (USA). In their own way they warned me on different problematic s. And as mucha as I tried to find something about all of them, I could not. Thinking about it, decision has been made: in the existing edition “World of Ginkgo's” I will show all Ginkgo's connection. Those now and during history, just keeping in mind that all information is precise, accurate, clear, short and substantiated with scientific and other sources.

    At the begging I was considering to make one separate book, but as I was making progress it was quite easy to see tree different approaches. First one is about plant itself, name, cultivation, prevalence, etc. Basically descriptional part. In this part we can count Ginkgo's use in horticultural purposes because it is tightly linked with cultivation.

    Second part is very logical and it relates on Ginkgo's cultivar farming and cultivation of bonsai forms.

    Third and fourth part is totally applicable because it relates to use of Ginkgo or some parts of him in medicine (alternative or official), culinary, religion, mythology, art, applied art, etc.

    To publish all that in one book would definitely be to excessive and it would have no sense since it can be published separately and paired it would make a complete unity. Those are precise reasons that I've separated my work “Ginkgo biloba L. 1771 - All about Ginkgo (or Maidenhair tree)” in to the four books: Vol 1- 4.

    In this part (Vol 1) we bring you many descriptional data and information about cultivation, name, history, propagation and so on for the species Ginkgo biloba.

    In memory of Dr. Marijan Jergović (1938-2010), Croatia.

Branko M. Begović Bego
(June, 2011)

• Nature's Miracle Ginkgo biloba Vol 2


    As a logical extension to a general description of the Ginkgo biloba species undoubtedly is a description i.e.  introduction of cultivars and bonsai forms of this species. As a logical follow-up  on general description of the Ginkgo biloba plant as a species and its cultivars just getting to know the plant (its morphological characteristics, prevalence, etc) is nothing but general getting to know Ginkgo from all aspects, I have decided to connect two parts in one, but jet divide them in some manner, too. And this is precise reason why this book consits from two volumes: Vol 1 and Vol 2.

    Some years ago when I first started collecting data about cultivars and bonsai forms I have found a large number of confusing and superffical datas distributed in numerous digital and print form. On modern media's, such as Internet datas are informative and very superfficial while print datas are quite rare. So on various ways I contacted manufactuers (growers/gardners) of Ginkgo's bonsai and cultivars. In such way I've collected many necceseary informations about cultivars.

    Up to now all literature guess about number of Ginkgo's cultivars and forms – grown or identified. And there allways number „hundred“ showed up. But while sorting data I have established that this number is around 250 and most of them can be identified.

    Through Ginkgo's cultivar and bonsai rewiew one unity is rounded, but there are room to say quite a lot more about all of them.

    Still I hope this will be good basic for further research and knowing of Ginkgo as a species and his cultivars and bonsai forms.

Branko M. Begović Bego
(October, 2011)

1/1 Nomenclature, taxonomic units and classifications, World names, names of origin, etc.


Since Ginkgo managed to survive even in times of advanced human evolution
(by that we mean period from befor two, three or more thousands of years) in only one smaller part of todays Souteast and East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and small circle aroun those countries) it is completely understandable that todays name Ginkgo has its base in languages that are native in that Area's.

Different plant and animal studdies through history emerged classification
through which it is possible to easier reckognized individual plant or animal species, including Ginkgo.

As part of botany that deals with plant taxonoy and plant classification has
developed through few last centuries it has brought out clearer scientificly based separations and grups in which Ginkgo is placed.

As Ginkgo arrived and settled in Europe and other parts of the World since
people had no knowledge about this plant they named him in numerous names which they thouth it was appropriate no matter how strange in fact it was. But strange as it was in numerous countries it can be found in use even today.

Ginkgo biloba is an endangered species in particular because it was recently, for industrial exploitation, exclusively for the reproduction of male individuals, mostly by vegetative propagation. Therefore, there is a possibility that in due course become a Ginkgo plant only masculine without the possibility of natural reproduction semen because of the lack of individuals female.

(Kingdom) Plantae
(Division) Ginkgophyta
(Class) Ginkgoopsida
(Order) Ginkgoales
(Family) Ginkgoaceae
(Genus) Ginkgo

(NCBI Taxonomy) cellular organisms
Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo in Chinese and Japanese language and

Ginkgo - in the languages of the World.

Dynamic Glitter Text Generator at TextSpace.net

2/1 Ancestors and relatives of Ginkgo biloba


Incredible, but true is the fact, that the evolutionary development of Ginkgo can be traced, although sometimes without the consensus of scientists but primarily due to a lack of evidence, in staggering 300 million years. So nearly 10% of the total age of our planet today, which is estimated at slightly more than 4 billion years. This can not be said for any other living plant species.

Various climate change, natural disasters and many other things from the past
have lead to the fact only one species of plants managed to survive and it is Ginkgo biloba, which had through overall period of its existence a whole lot of further and closest relatives and almost envious number of members of which most them are extinct.

Therefore, in this part we will attempt to form a clearer view in that part of the
history of Ginkgo's ancestors and relatives, which is based solely on fossilized remains and today, scattered almost all over the World.

Ginkgo's ancestors lived in the period before the famous extinct animal species, such as dinosaurs. They lived in community with them, and they live after a dinosaurs as well.

Source: B.M. Begović Bego, "Nature's Miracle Ginkgo biloba", Book 1, Vol 1-2.

Table: geologic eras and periods in which it has grown and flourished life of Ginkgophytalean

Source: B.M. Begović Bego, "Nature's Miracle Ginkgo biloba", Book 1, Vol 1-2.

Schematic drawings showing diversity of Ginkgoalean ovulate organs. (A) Trichopitys Florin;
(B) Karkenia Archangelsky; (C) Toretzia Stanislavsky; (D) Umaltolepis; (E) Yimaia Zhou et
Zhang; (F) Grenana Samylina; (G) Nehvizdyella Kvacek, Falcon-Lang et Dašková; (H) Ginkgo L.
(Jurassic species) (based on Florin, 1949; Archangelsky, 1965; Krassilov, 1972;
Stanislavsky, 1973; Zhou and Zhang, 1989, 1992; Samylina, 1990; Kvacek et al., 2005).

Trichopitys heteromorpha. Up: fantastic photo-digital reconstruction by (Japan). Below: graphic reconstruction. This reconstruction is approximate. Studio SHIFT Chihiro Suzuki Photo (The reconstruction of Trichopitys is problematic and very curious!)
Source: B.M. Begović Bego, "Nature's Miracle Ginkgo biloba", Book 1, Vol 1-2.

Down: Trichopitys heteromorpha (rec.)
Source: B.M. Begović Bego, "Nature's Miracle Ginkgo biloba", Book 1, Vol 1-2.

Trichopitys heteromorpha. The fossil was found in
southern France. Permian Period. - = 1 cm. The
arrow shows ovulating organs.
Black / white reconstruction Ginkgo yimaensis.

Schematic drawing showing radiation of the different lineages of Ginkgoaleans from the
archetype Trichopitys.

Source: B.M. Begović Bego, "Nature's Miracle Ginkgo biloba", Book 1, Vol 1-2.

Prevalence division Ginkgophyta in Triassic Period - cca 210 million years ago.
1-4: Red land is Scandinavia & blue is Greenland = landmark. Prevalence Ginkgophytalean plant (transparent sequences) 1. Jurassic Period 160 mill. years ago, 2. Cretaceous 85 mill. y. ago, 3. Eocene 40 mill. y. ago, 4. Neogene 7 mill. y. ago (cca). - Source: B.M. Begović Bego, "Nature's Miracle Ginkgo biloba", Book 1, Vol 1-2.

Overall diversity changes of Ginkgoalean genera and morphogenera through geological ages in the world.

Table: the existence of genus Ginkgo (Permian > Neogen).
Source: B.M. Begović Bego, "Nature's Miracle Ginkgo biloba", Book 1, Vol 1-2.


Evolution of Ginkgo biloba. Graphic (approximately) reconstruction G. yimaensis, G. apodes, G. adiantoides (G. cranii) and G. biloba (today). (Recon. B. M. Begović Bego - Z. Zhou, 2010/2011) - Source: B.M. Begović Bego, "Nature's Miracle Ginkgo biloba", Book 1, Vol 1-2.

Dynamic Glitter Text Generator at TextSpace.net

Ginkgo digitata (leaf). Jurassic, Spitsbergen, Norway. Photo by Michael Pop, USA.
In Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, USA.

3/1 Morphological characteristics of species Ginkgo biloba


We could already see that the Ginkgo biloba or maidenhair tree is bicameral
plant. His leaf is very specific basically divided into two parts. But the specific is fruit also. The gardening he is an extremely valued plant for its amazing beauty. Even the most refined lover of ornamental plants will admit that Gingko is unique pearl in horticultural areas.

Treetop of a well cherished ginkgo is magnificent even in the winter when leafs drop off and keep an eye buds very noticeable for human eyes and in Summer when it is completely green. In spring it's full of flowers and in Autumn in the end treetop gets a beautiful golden yellow color. Even when the leafs drop off yellow carpet under the tree will rarely leave anyone indifferent. The charms that Ginkgo provides with its appearance does not depend on an age of the plant. It is unique since its first year and until sometimes quite envious few thousand years old speciments.

On morphological characteristics of Ginkgo we could say a lot and basic description of the appearance of Ginkgo are now nearly overwhelmed books, a variety of botanical and horticultural handbooks and journals, manuals and journals on medicinal plants, an official pharmacopoeia and medicine..., while the newest medium - Internet there are numerous data about this miracle plant. Here we will try to summarize and describe in useful manner layout of Ginkgo biloba so that you will be able to known Ginkgo in full.

Male and female flowers species Ginkgo biloba L. 1771.
Especially: the Ginkgo flower not smell and taste.

Ginkgo seeds.

Mature fruits Maidenhair tree or Ginkgo.

Basic anatomy of the Ginkgo leaf.

The root system: Surface level (blue), Capillary level (purple), Base level (red). B. M. Begović Bego, Nature's Miracle Ginkgo biloba, Book 1, Vol 1-2, 2011.

Ginkgo ice tea - for health, thirst and eyes.

Dynamic Glitter Text Generator at TextSpace.net